Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Medieval Scientists of the East

Hit links or go to website http://msth.uz/en/medieval-scientists-of-the-east/ 

Abu Abdalloh Muhamad ibn Musa al Khorazmi(about 783–847) Mathematician, astronomer, geographer and historian, creator of algebra
Abu Nasr Mansur ibn Iraq (mid of XI century, Khorezm, Ghazna). Mathematician and astronomer
Abul-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kasir al Farghani(about 798-865) Astronomer, mathematician, and engineer
Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Beruni(973-1048, Kyat. Gazna) Encyclopaedist, astronomer, mathematician, geographer, physicist, geologist, pharmacologist, historian, linguist, founder of geodesy
Aby Mansur Qumri(X century, Bukhara city) Prominent physician, teacher of Avicenna in medical science
Abu Sahl Masihi(970-971, Gurgan – 1011) Astronomer, mathematician, physician, and linguist
Khorezmi Kasi(XI century) Scientist-chemist
Muhammad b. Najib Bahran(12-13 centuries) A well-known geographer in the government of Annushteginid Khorezm-Shahs
Shihab ad-din Abdallah b. Lutfallah b. Abd ar- Rashid al- Haravinicknamed as Hafiz-i Abru (died in 1430) A well-known historian and geographer of the epoch of the Temurids and Amir
Nizamaddin Abdalvasi Shami(died in 1411, Tabriz) A historian and biographer of Amir Temur
Muinaddin Natanzi(the second half of the 14th century and the first quarter of the 15th century) Historian
Ahmad Yungnaki(XII-XIII) Philologist, Philosopher, Expert of the Islamic sciences
Alisher Navoi(9.02.1441, Herat – 3.01.1501) Great poet and thinker, statesman, the founder of Uzbek literature
Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur( 02.14.1483 , Andijan – 26/12/1530 , Agra ) Great poet and writer, public figure, scholar, lexicographer, linguist and literary critic
Yusuf Khas Hajib Balasaguni
(1016/18 – the endof the XI c.) Scholar and lexicographer, poet and philosopher
Mahmud ibn al-Xuseyn ibn Muhamed Kashghari(1029-1101) Encyclopedic-Scientist, lexicographer, linguist, ethnographer, folklorist, geographer, historian, founder of Turkology
Giyasiddin Jamshid ibn Mas’ud Qashi (year of birth is unknown, died in 1430) Mathematician and astronomer
Mahmud Chagmini(XII-XIII) Astronomer, mathematician, geographer
Abu Ali Ibn Sina(980, village Afshan-1037, Hamadan) Scholar and lexicographer, philosopher, physician, pharmacologist, astronomer, mathematician, chemist, musicologist, writer, lawyer, poet
Sharafaddin ali Yazdi (died in 1454, Taft in Horasan) An all-round scholar, astronomer, philosopher, historian, the investigater of science problems
Fasih Havafi(1375, Rui – 1442, Herat) Historian, poet, politician
Fahriddin Razi (1148-1210) Philosopher, logician, linguist, medical specialist
Mahmud Zamahshari(18.03.1075 Zamahshar, 14.04.1144, Gurganj)
Ala ad-Din Ali ibn Muhammad al-Qushchi(1402, Samarqand – 1474, Istanbul) Astronomer, mathematician, and geographer
Yusuf ibn Yusuf at-tabib al-Khiravi(The end of the XV c., Khaf – 1544, Delhi) Medical scientist, skilful physician, lexicographer, and poet.
Giyasaddin Nakkash(second half of the 15th century, Yezd) An artist and historian of the Temurids’ epoch
Abd ar-Razzak Samarkandi(1413-1482) A well-known historian of the epoch of the Temurids
Giyasiddin ibn Humamaddin al-Huseyn, nicknamed Khandamir(1476, Herat – 1535, Mandu) Historian, writer, poet, politician
Mukhammadrizo mirab ibn Erniyazbek Agakhi
(1809 Kiyat – 1874, Khiva) Statesman, poet, historian, translator
Shirmuhammad mirab ibn Avazby Muniz
(1778 Kiyat-1829, Khorasan), statesman, poet, historian, translator
Ismail Jurjani(Jurjan 1042 – Merv 1036) Renowned physician
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Khorezmi
(died in 997 ) Encyclodedist scientist, philosopher, historian , astronomer, mathematician, chemist, expert in Islamic Studies
Mirza Muhammad Taraghay ibn Shahrukh ibn Timur(22 March 1394, Sultaniyeh - 27 October 1449, Samarkand) Astronomer, mathematician, geographer, historian 

Saturday, November 21, 2015

Aydar Arnasay Lakes System - Ramsar Site

 Aydar Arnasay Lakes System

Water from the Syr Darya river spills into Aydar Lake, the dark blue body of water in the canter of this image. 

The Aydar-Arnasay lakes system is situated in the south-eastern part of Uzbekistan on the territory of Navoi and Dzhizak provinces. In the north it is bordered by the Kyzyl-Kum desert whereas in the south by the foothills of the North-Nuratau mountains and extensive irrigated areas of the Golodnaya steppe in the east. The Aydar-Arnasay lakes system includes 3 brackish water lakes (Aydar Kul, Arnasay and Tuzkan). Up to the middle of the last century the Arnasay lowland remained a dry Salt pan during most of the year. Only in Spring, in the lowlands, would the small, ephemeral Lake Tuzkan glisten briefly, disappearing in the hot weather.

In the early sixties the Syr Darya was dammed up. Simultaneously the Chardarya irrigation dam was constructed. Floodgates were provided in the dam for flood control, and when in 1969 a raging flood occurred, these were opened as the dam's capacity was inadequate to cope with the flow. Between February 1969 and February 1970 almost 60% of the Syr Darya's average annual water flow (21 km³) was drained from the Chardarya Reservoir into the Arnasay lowland. Since 1969 the Aydar Lake has regularly received the waters of the Syr Darya River when they overflow the capacity of the Chardarya Reservoir. This has gradually filled up the natural cavity of Arnasay lowland to create the second largest lake in the region (after the Aral Sea). The total length east to west of these lakes is 300 km and its north to south width varies from 30 to 50 km. The water level of the lakes system is about 240-242 m, water-surface area more than 3700 square km and has a volume about 44.3 cubic km.

The Aydar Arnasay Lakes System was designated a RAMSAR site in 1977 is located at the crossroads of the Afro-Eurasian and Central Asian flyways it is a centre for migrating and wintering waterbirds, with more than 100 species noted. It provides a habitat to threatened species like White-headed Duck Savka (Oxyura leucocephala), Sociable Lapwing (Chettusia gregaria), Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus), Red-breasted Goose (Rufibrenta ruficollis), Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erytropus), and Pallas Sea-eagle (Haliaetus leucoryphus)  In addition there are many other kinds of water birds migrating from the Aral Sea that make their homes around the lake. On migration there are found many different kinds of ducks, swans, geese, cranes, bustard, pelican, cormorant, white and grey herons, terns, snipe, pheasant, snipe, spoonbills and egrets.

The lake systems also provides an important source of food and a spawning ground for various species of fish, including the Sazan (Cyprinus carpio), Pike perch (Stizostedion lucioperca), Bream (Abramis brama), Cat-fish (Silurus glanis), Hzereh (Aspius aspius), Chehon (Pelecus cultratus), Ophidian fish (Channa argus) were introduced to the lake, which nowadays works as a source of industrial fishing.

The main vegetation are reed communities, saltwort and tamarisk.,calligonum, sedge, bonfires, astragalus, boyalych and yantak. In the coastal scrub and reed can be found muskrats, wolves, wild boars, jackals, fox, badgers , and jungle cat. And among the sand lands often meets jerboa, yellow gopher steppe tortoise, big-eared hedgehog, boa, various snakes, lizard, and steppe agama.

Friday, November 20, 2015

Kyzyl Kum "Desert"

Kyzylkum,  In Uzbek: Qizilqum, In Kazakh:Qyzylqum (Қызылқұм) is the 16th largest desert in the world. Its name means Red Sand in Turkic languages. It is located in Central Asia in between the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya south east of the Aral Sea, a region historically known as Transoxania or Sogdiana. Today it is divided between Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and (partly) Turkmenistan. It covers about 298,000 km2  

It consists of a plain sloping down toward the northwest, with a number of isolated bare mountains rising to 922 m (Sultanuizdag) and several large enclosed basins. Precipitation, 4–8 inches (100–200 mm) annually, occurs mainly in winter and spring. Mostly covered with sand ridges on which desert plants grow, the desert serves as pasture for Karakul sheep, horses, and camels, and there are several small oasis settlements. Temperatures can be very high during the summer months, from mid-May to mid-September. 
Desert fauna include the Russian tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) and a large lizard known as the Transcaspian or Desert Monitor (Varanus griseus), which can reach lengths of 1.6 m. The Saiga Antelope (Saiga tatarica) also occasionally migrates through the northern part of the desert.  

There is a Kyzyl Kum nature reserve in Bukhara Province, founded in 1971. The area of the reserve amounts to 101,000 km2 and it is located on flood-land (tugai) drained by the Amu-Darya close to the settlement Dargan Ata. Ensure to visit the Kyzyl-Kum Reserve during spring. The reserve is home to almost 190 species of birds, including wild ducks, herons pheasants and river terns. Bukharan Deer, wolves, wild boars, hares, jackals and foxes can be found in this area.
Another reserve (or eco-centre), "Djeyran" founded in 1977 is located 40 km to the south of Bukhara. The total area of this reserve is 5131 ha. It is a breeding centre for rare animals such as: the Goitered or Persian Gazelle, Przewalski's Horse, the Turkmenian Kulan and Houbara Bustard.

The Kyzyl Kum has exposed rock formations of particular interest is the Bissekty Formation from the early Late Cretaceous, which has produced several species of early birds: Enantiornis martini and E. walkeri, Kizylkumavis cretacea, Kuszholia mengi, Lenesornis kaskarovi, Sazavis prisca, Zhyraornis kaskarovi, and Z. logunovi are recognized as valid species. Tyrannosaurid, therizinosaurid, ostrich-mimic, oviraptorosaurian, troodontid, armored, duckbilled, and horned dinosaurs are also known from this rock unit.
The local population uses the large spaces of the Kyzyl Kum as a pasture for livestock (mostly sheep, Bactrian Camels and dromedaries).

The Kyzyl Kum is well known for its deposits of gold, uranium, copper, aluminium and silver, natural gas and oil. The development of most the famous gold-field at Muruntau began in the early 1970s. The centres for the mining and smelting industry at the region are Navoi, Zarafshan city, Uchkuduk. The major industrial enterprises are: НГМК (Navoi Mining and Smelting Complex - owned by Kyzylkumredmetzoloto) and Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Co. (AMMC).

Photo: The worlds largest open pit gold mine at Muruntau

Important natural-gas deposits are exploited at Gazli in the southeast and processed at nearby industrial town of Mubarek.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyzyl_Kum

Sunday, November 15, 2015

Catastrophic collapse of saiga population in Central Kazakhstan

In the northern summer a  catastrophic die-off  hit the largest population of the Critically Endangered saiga antelope Saiga tatarica located in central Kazakhstan. 

This virulent mysterious epizootic illness caused herd fatality of 100% once they were infected. It is estimated that more than 120,000 saiga were lost, some 40% of the species' total worldwide population of 250,000.

The deaths have been attributed to the Pasteurella bacterium an opportunistic pathogen that weakens the immune system.  It seems also likely that a number of environmental stress factors were involved that made the Saiga susceptible to the bacterium. An international team has been put together to investigate the deaths.

Source: For more information on the species see Saiga Conservation Alliance publication 

Wednesday, November 11, 2015

New Helicopter Mi-8 MTV for Uzbekistan Airways

Uzbekistan Airways has purchased for 12.7 million an Mi-8 MTV-1 multi-purpose helicopter produced in Kazan in Russia. Unique in its functionality it will be soon added to the existing air fleet of the Special Aerial Works division of Uzbekistan Airways.
The Mi-8 MTV-1 is a unique multi-purpose helicopter, based at the Mi-8T model. The helicopter as a cargo helicopter can transport up to 4,000 kg of various kinds of cargo either inside the cabin or on an external sling. Used as a passenger helicopter is can carry up to 26 passengers & crew and boasts low levels of noise and vibration, is fitted with cabin climate-control systems, and has emergency exits that meet the latest safety standards. Everything is designed to ensure passenger in-flight comfort and safety.

Mi-8 helicopters are built at Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant and by Kazan Helicopters. More than 12,000 Mi-8 helicopters have been produced to date – a record for twin-engine helicopters anywhere in the world. They have been supplied to more than 100 countries worldwide and racked up total flying time of about 100 million hours.

Source: http://www.uzdaily.uz/

Also see Commercial Helicopters in Uzbekistan