Thursday, January 3, 2013

Desalination in Karakalpakstan

The Republic of Karakalpakstan, situated in the north-western part of Uzbekistan includes the Amu Darya River delta total area covers 165,600 square kilometres (37 % of Uzbekistan). The climate is typically continental, with very hot summers and cold winters without snow. The area is experiencing severe environmental problems as a result of the shrinking of the Aral Sea.

Around Muynak in Republic of Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan.

Photo: Muynak Rayon (desalinator in background)

There are several reservoirs in the Amu Darya basin, the largest of which is the Tuya Muyun with a storage capacity of 7,800 MCM, consisting of four separate reservoirs.

One reservoir of this system the Kaparas is used to provide drinking water for Karakalpakstan.

In Karakalpakstan there are three main water supply organisations.

o Tuya Muyun - Regional organisation for water transportation mains.
o Agrovodokanal, - Water Company for the rural area.
o Vodokanal - Regional water company.

The drinking water supply in a number of rural areas however comes from groundwater which is too saline.

For rural communities the following water supply schemes are being used:

o Supply from local fresh groundwater sources
o Connection to the group system of Tuya Muyun-Nukus trunk mains
o Truck water supply (supply of water in water trailers)
o Desalination of ground water, which is rather brackish

Current Status of Desalination:

From 1987 some 200 desalination stations were constructed in Karakalpakstan. However only  63 were  operational by 2010. They are run by the Agrovodokanal. These stations are known as EKOS plants and were assembled and built by the "Tambovmash" factory from Tambov in Russia.

Feed water is usually obtained from deep wells, ranging between 400 and 600 meters deep. The distribution system is only for public tapping points. These desalination plants use the electro dialysis process. They are very basic and robust installations and have proved very suitable for the local circumstances where ongoing maintenance is an issue.

Vodokanal also has two sites where it applies desalination using reverse osmosis. There is one plant in Takhtakupir of 2400m3/day, and there are five small plants in Muynak of 15m3/day each.

Environmental Impact. Brine that derives from the many ED desalination plants is discharged to general collectors. Brine disposal is not generally neutralised, however this is considered not to be an environmental threat since the quantities of desalinated water are so small and very local. Moreover, there are no chemicals used in the treatment process, so the composition of the water does not really change.

Camellos alrededores Moynaq, Uzbekistán - Uploaded by juanracastano on
Photo: Salt covers much of the land in the northern districts of Karakalpakstan

Source of Photos:

Wednesday, January 2, 2013

Stamp to commemorate the 170th Anniversary of the birth of the Karakalpak National Poet Berdakh

Designer: S. Sharipov
Paper: coated
Printing process: offset
Perforation: comb 13 3/4 : 14
Size: 26 x 37 mm
Sheet composition: 50 (10 x 5) stamps
Printing run: 35.000
Michel catalogue number: 174
15.00 (S). red-brown and light-blue.

Berdakh's monument, Nukus

In 1997, in connection with the 170th anniversary of the birth of the great Karakalpak poet-thinker Berdakh, the Karakalpak State University decided to construct a museum. Completed in 1998 the museum is a three-storey building with one large and six smaller domes. The designer was Orynbay Toreniyazov, a famous architect of the republic and the winner of the State Award of Berdakh.

Berdakh is considered the first historian of Karakalpak people. His book "Shezhire" is a genealogy of  not only the Karakalpak people, but comprises data on the Turkic people as a whole. In "Shezhire" he describes the 300 most important characters in Karakalpak history. He was also famous for his poetry devoted to national heroes including the great poems "Amangeldi" and "Ernazar biy". Besides poetry, Berdakh also wrote some well loved "Bakhsy" folk music which that was famous not only among Karakalpaks but their neighbours as well the Khoresmian Uzbeks and Turkmens.

The museum has expositions depicting history, ethnography and culture of Karakalpak people. The organisation of the museum is into thematic halls of archaeology, ethnography, art and history. In addition it has materials about clerical educational institutes of the past and the present - madrasahs and maktabs, the first Soviet educational institutes and about the history of formation of higher and secondary education institutions in Karakalpakistan.  It also contains a collection of old manuscripts in the Arabian, the Persian and the Turkic languages.

Berdakh, pseudonym of Berdimurat (son of Kargabai) (1827–1900) was born in a remote village near modern-day Muynak. His father was a poor fisherman and his mother, who gave him the nickname Berdakh, died when he was 10 years old. His father also died while Berdakh was still a child leaving him an orphan. Berdakh studied in a local maktab and at the same time earned a living from sheaparding fellow villagers' cattle.

His brother assisted him to enrol in Karakum madrasah, a Muslim religious school, but in time Berdakh dropped out to study folk poetry and narrative classical masterpieces under a  tutor, Kunkhoja, (1799–1880) who was famous for his folk poetry. Ajinyaz, (1824–1878) another famous poet of that time, also played a significant role in Berdakh's life. For much of his life Berdakh also earned a living playing the dutar and singing at weddings and different festive occasions.

He was the author of lyrical, satirical, and didactic verses, as well as historical poems (The Genealogy, Aidos bii, Amangel’dy, Ernazar bii, and others). In the narrative poem ‘Tsar Samodur’ (The Petty Tyrant Tsar) Berdakh depicted the people’s struggle against a despotic Khan. The poet exalted labour as the basis of life and the source of man’s spiritual wealth. He ardently opposed social oppression and the oppression of women. Before the October Revolution, Berdakh’s works were disseminated by storytellers, poets, and readers.

During Berdakh's lifetime their developed strong national movements among the peoples of the Amu Darya and Aral Sea territory, especially among the Karakalpaks. Karakalpakia became a hotspot of discord within the Khanate of Khiva. The Khiva Khans constantly imposed heavy duties on its people and ruled with a heavy hand. Berdakh wrote not only about social problems of his time but also about the protection of women's rights and dignity. Berdakh influence in his homeland is still strong and his statue has a prominent place outside the Karakalpak Parliament.


Tanglamalï shïgharamalarï. Nukus, 1956.

In Russian translation:

lzbrannoe. Nukus, 1958.


Saghitov, I. Berdaktïng tvorchestvosï. Nukus, 1958.

The Great Soviet Encyclopaedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Tuesday, January 1, 2013

Solar Power in Uzbekistan

LUKoil plans Uzbekistan’s largest solar project

LUKoil, in partnership with the government of Uzbekistan and the Asian Development Bank have announced they are planning to construct Uzbekistan largest solar energy plant, which will have an initial capacity of 100 megawatts, to expanded eventually to 1,000 megawatts. ( news website)

Solar Power in Uzbekistan - Introduction
During the Soviet era, Uzbekistan was the USSR’s leading centre for solar research and in 1965 the Uzbek Academy of Sciences began publishing “Geliotekhnika” ("Applied Solar Energy") quarterly journal, the former Soviet Union's sole scientific publication devoted to solar power, which continues today.

Government statistics report that Uzbekistan has more than 300 sunny days a year and the Centre for Economic Research of Uzbekistan is promoting the use of surplus power generation which can be exported to neighbouring energy-deficient countries.

According to Uzbek energy analysts, at present the country’s share of renewable energy does not exceed one percent despite Uzbekistan’s renewable energy potential, which they estimate at about 51 billion tons in oil equivalents, with solar energy providing 50.973 billion tons.

Future plans
In recent years, Uzbekistan has significantly focused its attention on the development of renewable energy resources and, in particular, solar energy, in a bid to diversify its energy balance and reduce its dependence on gas.

As part of its current plans, the government intends to design a state concept for the development of renewable energy sources. Furthermore, Uzbekistan is said to be cooperating with the Asian Development Bank to establish a National Institute for Solar Energy near the city of Navoi. Set to become a scientific centre, it will be responsible for the implementation of projects in the field of solar energy.

Sources : and and Uzbekistan Today

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