Monday, November 6, 2017

Nukus Streets




El Canal de Karakum

El canal de Karakum (Karakum Canal, Kara Kum Canal, Garagum Canal; (ruso: Каракумский канал), Karakumsky Kanal) en Turkmenistán, es el más extenso canal de irrigación y suministro de agua del mundo. Su construcción comenzó en 1954, y fue concluido en 1988, es navegable a lo largo de toda su extensión de 1,375 km, y transporta 13 km³ de agua anualmente desde el río Amu-Darya a través del desierto de Karakum en Turkmenistán. El canal permitió el desarrollo de la agricultura en grandes extensiones de tierra, especialmente el monocultivo del algodón muy promocionado por la Unión Soviética, y es una fuente de agua muy importante para Ashgabat.
Desafortunadamente, por deficiencias en su método de construcción casi el 50% del agua se pierde durante el transporte a través de fisuras en el canal, generando lagos y lagunas a su paso, y una elevación del nivel de la napa de agua lo que ha generado grandes problemas por salinización de la tierra. El canal es un factor importante en lo que se conoce como el desastre ambiental del mar de Aral. El actual canal de Karakum no fue el primer intento de llevar agua desde el Amu-Darya a los Karakums. A comienzos de la década de 1950, se comenzó la construcción del Canal Principal de Turkmen, cuyo inicio estaba planificado para una ubicación mucho más al norte (cerca de Nukus), y correría en dirección suroeste hacia Krasnovodsk. El canal utilizaría aproximadamente el 25% del agua del Amu-Darya.


Sunday, November 5, 2017

Djanpik-Qala (IX-XI, XIII-XIV centuries AD)

The outstanding Soviet archaeologist S.P.Tolstov, who was the head of Khoresm archaeological and ethnographic expedition in Karakalpakstan, called Dzhanpik-Kala (Djanpik-Qala) the most beautiful fortress in Khoresm.

Located 6 km to the South-East of the town Karatau some six km off the Nukus to Urgench highway (50 km from Nukus) not far from the banks of Amudarya, on the border of the Baday-Tugay biosphere reserve not far from the south western edge of the Sailtan Uvays Mountains it can be accessed by a winding dirt road (7Km) from Gayur Qala or (6 Km) off a turning on the main road.

The fortress was built on the ruins of a much early settlement dating from the 4th century BC. The towering external walls, which are seen today, date from the medieval period, the fortress itself largely built between the 9th and 10th centuries AD. The vast Djanpik Qala is irregularly shaped and protected by a double wall with an archers gallery on the second floor. A rectangular citadel is located on the highest point of settlement. Five towers located around the perimeter are still visible. From the 10th to the 14th century it became a residential zone with many workshops and stores.

 It was first sacked by the Mongols (along with most of Khoresm) in the years 1220-1.  After the invaders left there was further construction  residential and workshop zones within the fortress and once again became an important centre of craft production and trade with workshops for glass makers, weavers, blacksmiths, potters and stone carvers. Silver and copper coins and many other items indicate that it must have been and important port and trading post on the river. Artefacts indicate that the town had a sophisticated water supply and drainage system. After Amir Timur conquered and destroyed the Khorezm State in 1388, the fortress was abandoned.
On the north-western side of fortress there is a palace or a citadel with walls with elegant façade stucco moldings, typically of the medieval architecture of Khoresm. The layout of the settlement is complex extending over a large area with large level difference following the landform.

On the top of fortifications were open slots for archers protected by a low wall in the front. It is possible to walk up the stairs, located inside the wall. Five towers have survived each located about seventy (70) meters from each other. Only one tower on the eastern wall has an inner room, other towers are monolithic. There were two entrances. One entrance on the northern wall comes to an cemetery, and another on the bend in a wall from the southern side.

There are still traces of a break on southern wall, which were made during the invasion which led to the collapse of the settlement.