Tuesday, December 29, 2015

Traditional Herbal Medicinal Foods in Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan and its neighbours in Central Asia is where many of the wild species that have become important crops around the world (such things as apples, apricots, alfalfa, flax, garlic, almonds, pistachios, sesame, numerous types of beans come originally from the region). It is an extremely important place in terms of plant species diversity. Breeders still go there to find disease resistant, cold tolerant species due to the unique assemblage of endemic plant and animal species, it has amongst the most diverse area for many medicinally and chemically relevant groups of plants such as Allium, Artemisia, Astragalus, Ferula and Oxytropis.

Scientists in the region have since Medieval times studied the medical benefits of plants.  In the 10th–11th centuries Abu Rayjon Beruni and Abu Ali ibn Sino (Avicenna) made great contribution to herbal medicine. Abu Rayhan Beruni (973–1048) famously wrote “Kitob as Saidana fit-t-tib” where edible plants were detailed and Abu Ali ibn Sino (980–1037) “Canon,” which contains five volumes, two volumes have been dedicated to medicinal plants. He described about 1,500 drugs and almost 1,000 species of medicinal plants, among them 20 species had been known from the ancient period as food plants. Since that time many other scientists have made their contribution by researching medicinal plants. In the 20th and 21st centuries, extensive research of the chemical and pharmacological properties of local medicinal plants has been conducted.

Uzbekistan has some 4,500 species of plants the following have been identified for medicinal purposes in Uzbekistan. (Main Source: Medicinal Plants of Central Asia: Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, published by Science Direct )
Botanical name
                  Uzbek  
                         Function
Family Alliaceae
Allium barsczewskii Lipsky
Piez
Bulbs and pounded leaves are applied at the head against colds and flu, headache, fever, and toothache. Seeds are eaten with bread in order to increase appetite also used for treatment of skin diseases.
A. jodanthum Vved          
Yovoj piozi      
Leaves and bulbs without stems are used against toothache and mumps, alcohol  extracts for disinfections of wounds.
A. karataviense Regel
Chuchka piez
Aerial parts a vitamin source. Used against pneumonia and lung problems.
A. majus Vved.
Piez
Bulbs provide a vitamin Source
A,motor.Kam et Levichev
Mador
Young leaves are eaten in soups and 'somsa' which owns a specific activity as tonic.
A. praemixtum Vved.
Piez
Bulbs provide a vitamin Source
A. pskemense B.Fedtsch.
Pskom piozi
Bulbs and leaves used against colds and flu, headache, fever, and toothache. Seeds are eaten with bread in order to increase appetite.
Allium severtzovioides R.M. Fritsch
Tosh motor
Fresh leaves and bulbs without stems are locally applied against stomach and duodenum diseases.
A. suworowii Regel
Anzur piozi
Bulbs used as a vitamin source. Pickled bulbs are eaten against tuberculosis and bronchitis.
         Family Anacardiaceae
Pistacia vera L.
Pista
Nuts - Cardiac, respiratory diseases
Rhus coriaria L.
Tatum
Fruits - Hypertension, gastric ulcer
         Family Apiaceae
Bunium persicum L.
Zira
Seeds - Stomach diseases, spice
Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel
Sassik kovrak
Leaves -Wounds, diabetes, tuberculosis
Mediasia macrophilla (Regel and Schmalh.) M. Pimen.
Alqor ut
Aerial parts - Spice, preservative
         Family Asphodelaceae
Eremurus regelii Vved.
Shirach
Young leaves are a vitamin source
E. robustus (Regel) Regel
Shirach
Young leaves are a vitamin source
E. turkestanicus Regel
Shirach
Young leaves are a vitamin source
         Family Asteraceae
Taraxacum officinalle Web.
Koki
Leaves  Vitamin Source, skin diseases
         Family Berberidaceae
Berberis integerima Bunge
Zirk
Bark - Liver and kidney diseases
B.oblonga (Rgl.) Schneid.
Korazirk
Fruits - Liver and kidney diseases
         Family Brassicaceae
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.
Jag-jag
Aerial parts - blood coagulant, vitamin source
         Family Capparacea
Capparis herbaceae L.
Kavor
Fruits - Rheumatism, liver diseases
         Family Caryophyllaceae
Allochrusa gypsophiloides (Regel) Schischk.
Bekh
Roots - Saponin
         Family Cupressacea
Juniperus seravshanica Kom.
Archa
 
Urik archa
Fruits - Kidney, liver, urinary bladder diseases
J. turkestanica Kom.
Fruits - Rheumatism
         Family Elaegnaceae
Elaegnus angustifolia L.
Jida

Chakanda
Fruits – Treatment of bruises and wounds. 
 
Hippophae rhamnoides L.
Fruits - Uterine cervical erosion, for burn
         Family Juglandaceae
Juglans regia L.
Yongok
Nuts - Diabetes, skin, tuberculosis
    
       Family Moraceae
Morus alba L.
Tut
Fruits – Diabetes
 
        Family Punicaceae 
Punica granatum L.                                   Anor
 
Fruits - Stomach diseases
 
         Family Rhamnaceae 
Ziziphus jujuba Mill.
Unabi
Fruits - Anaemia, asthma, kidney, hypertension
         Family Rosaceae
Amygdalus communis L.
Bodom
Oil. Seeds - Asthma, cough, anaemia
A.spinossima Bunge
Bodomcha
Oil - Anaemia
Crataegus pontica C. Koch.
Crat. et Mesp.
Dulana
Fruits -Cardiac diseases, hypertension, sleeplessness
C. turkestanica Pojark.
Qizil dulana
Fruits -Cardiac diseases, hypertension
Rubus idaeus L.
Parmanchak
Fruits - vitamin source
Rosa canina L.
Itburun
Fruits - vitamin source
R. fedlshenkoana Regel
Namatak
Fruits - vitamin source
Sorbus tianschanica Rupr.
Chetani
Fruits - vitamin source
        
  Family Urticaceae
Urtica dioica L.
Gazanda ut
Aerial parts - Blood coagulant, Vitamin Source