Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Uzbekistan - Protected Natural Areas (PNA)

There are a number of types of preserved lands in Uzbekistan.

The most important is the "Zapovednik" which is a permanent reserve created with the goal of preserving a specific species or ecosystem.

Zapovednik (Russian: заповедник) from the Russian word заповедный means  "sacred, prohibited from disturbance, reserved". It is a protected area which is kept "forever wild". The closest international term is "a wilderness reserve".

It is open to scientific researchers with special permission; it is generally not open to the general public for recreation as it is under strict conservation management. In addition, education and promotion of wildlife conservation are key functions of zapovedniks. However, many reserves have adjacent areas or inclusions with different degrees of protection, sometimes areas within a park can have other uses such as grazing or tourism. They equate with the IUCN Cat I.

The next is the "Zakazniks" which are areas where temporary or permanent limitations are placed upon certain on-site economic activities, such as logging, mining, grazing, hunting, etc. They correspond to sanctuary in UNESCO World Heritage terminology. Many Zakazniks have traditionally been managed as game reserves. Some protect complex ecosystems, colonies of birds, or populations of rare plants. They range in size from 5,000 ha to 1,000,000 ha. They correspond to sanctuary in UNESCO World Heritage terminology.

Natural parks and monuments were created in Uzbekistan just before the breakup of the Soviet Union. They are usually smaller reserves next to or within nature reserves dedicated to unusual and/or historically significant features of the landscape. They are open to the public. The main objective on national parks is to ensure biodiversity conservation in the context of wise and strictly regulated nature use (tourism, harvesting natural raw materials, agriculture). These areas are IUCN Category II.

Outside of the official park system, there are still vast areas of virtually untouched nature.

PNA Year Designated Area (ha) Region

State Nature Reserves (Zapovrdniks)

1.  Badai-Tugai 1971 6,642 Republic of   Karakalpakstan
2.   Chatkalsky 1947 35,724 Tashkent region
Gissarsky 1983 80,986 Kashkadarya region
3.  Khitabsky 1979 3,938 Kashkadarya region
4.  Kyzylkhumsky 1971 10,311 Khorezm and Bukhara region
5.  Nuratinsky 1975 17,752 Dzhyzak region
6.  Surkhansky 1987 24,554 Surkhandarya region
7.  Zaaminsky 1926, restored in 1960 26,848 Dzhyzak region
8.  Zeravshansky 1975 2,352 Samarqand region
National Parks

1. Ugam-Chatkalsky state national nature park 1990 574,590 Tashkent region
2. Zaaminsky People's Park 1976 24,110 Dzhyzak region

Specialised Designations

1. Dzheiran Eco-Center 1976 7,122 Bukhara region

Refuges (Zakazniks)

1.  Aktau 1992 15,420 Samarkand region
2.  Dengyzkul 1992 50,000 Bukhara region
3.  Kharakir 1992 86,225 Bukhara region
4.  Kharnabchulsky 1992 40,000 Samarkand region
5.  Kushrabatsky 1992 16,300 Samarkand region
6.  Mubareksky 1992 236,846 Kashkadarya region
7.  Saiga 1991 1,000,000 Republic of Karakalpakstan
8.  Sarmysh 1991 5,000 Navoi region
9.  Sechankul 1992 7,037 Kashkadarya region
10. Sudochye 1991 50,000 Republic of Karakalpakstan

Nature Monuments
                                                  Central Ferghana

1.  Chustsky 1994 96 Namangan region
2.  Central Fergana 1995 142 Ferghana region
3.  Mingbulaksky 1993 1,000 Namangan region
4.  Yazyavan 1991 1,842 Ferghana region

There is no central authority in control of all parks, different PNAs are subordinate to different departments and local authorities: the State Committee for Environmental Protection (Goskompriroda), the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Economy, the State Committee of Geology, and regional administrations (Khokimiate)