Photo: Jalal ad din Manguberdi
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu was to spend the next three years in exile in India. Entering into an alliance with the Khokhars he captured Lahore and much of the Punjab. The next year he requested an alliance with Iltutmish against the Mongols. However the Sultan of Delhi refused, not wishing to get into a conflict with Genghis Khan and instead marched towards Lahore at the head of a large army. Mingburnu retreated from Lahore and moved towards Uchch inflicting a heavy defeat on its ruler Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha, and occupied Sindh and northern Gujarat before returning to Persia in 1224.
Once again he gathered an army and briefly re-established a kingdom, however he was unable to consolidate his power for long as once again his forces were pursued by Gengiz Khans forces who met his forces in battle in the Alborz mountains after which he and his men had to make a forced crossing of the Caucasus whereupon they captured Azerbaijan in 1225, setting up their capital at Tabriz. After initially forming an alliance with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm against the Mongols, Manguberdi fell out with them and his forces attack Georgia and sack Tbilisi in 1226. Several years of skirmishes follow and in 1230 his army captured the town Akhlat from Ayyubids. However his forces overextended and where defeated by Sultan Kayqubad I at Erzincan on the Upper Euphrates at the famous Battle of Yassıçemen (Yassi Chemen) in 1230.
Once again he and a core group of followers managed to escape into the Mountains of Kurdistan fing refugee in the city of Diyarbakir, however in the ensuring confusion the mongols capture his previous stronghold of Azerbaijan. (ED: Diyarbakir today is one of the largest cities in south eastern Turkey and in the heartland of the Kurdish struggle for self determination). Diyarbakir was to be his last sanctuary as he was assassinated there in 1231 by a Kurdish assassin hired by the Seljuks.
Manguberdi's loyal followers, however, remained loyal to him even after his death, transforming themselves into a mercenary force called the Khwarezmiyya. Thirteen years later, in pay of the Ayyubid Sultan Salih Ayyub of Egypt, the Khwarezmiyya invaded Christian-held Jerusalem, capturing the city's citadel, the Tower of David; and on July 11, 1244, forcing the surrender of the city. Of great note is that after being conquered by the Khwarezmiyya, Jerusalem would stay under control of Islamic Sovereignty until 1917, near the end of World War I, when it was taken from the Ottomans by victorious British and Commonwealth forces.(ED: The Australian Light Horse brigade playing a critical role in the battle).